During the last half century various methods of water supply distribution
residential and industrial application have been evolved. The earliest
was the gravity
feed with overhead tank which are still in use. The other system which
used was the Hydropnuematic System in which pressure tanks with certain
of compressed air and water were used as autoclaves to store water under
and the pumps and air compressors then automated so as to maintain pressure
within a minimum and maximum range.
This system enables water supply under pressure to the taps and flushing
connections in domestic and industrial establishments by means of automatic
pumping equipments. The total 24 hours anticipated consumption is stored
Master underground tank from where the Hydropnuematic Pumps take their
and pump into a cylindrical pressure vessel which contains certain portion
compressed air and from this pressure vessel
the water is fed into the system mains
to be carried to the various outlets.
The conventional system comprises of Pumps of special design for the
air compressors of 1-2HP to keep the air vessel charged with correct
ratio of air to
water and to make up the air which has dissolved. The entire equipment
automatically through a control console and the pumps start at low pressure
stop automatically at high pressure throughout the day and night, depending
demand for water. This system ensures adequate water supply, provided
available in the suction storage tank and electric supply is available.
storage tank is
necessary and the costly fixtures of the overhead tank such as ball
cocks, stop cocks,feed downtake branches are not required. Valuable
space is available.
There is no wastage of water due to overflow from overhead tank due
working of ball cocks. Instead of downtake branches from overhead tank
baths, WC etc., vertical branches from pressure tank to feed, baths,
WC etc. are
taken from the common main laid on ground level.
This system involves provision of the following:-
1. Master underground suction tank of sufficient capacity to meet the
2. Pumps of special design depending on lay out conditions suitable
3. Steel fabricated pressure vessel with manholes, water level gauge,
gauge and automatic controls.
4. Vertical air cooled air compressors.
5. Electric control panel with relays, switches etc.
OF PUMPING INSTALLATION
Pumps are electrically operated by switching on the supply. The
pumps start and
stop automatically by control switches and relays provided at the required
differential pressure range of the pressure vessel. As soon as the lead
water is pumped into the pressure tank. The air in the vessel is compressed
water level in the vessel rises. When the volume of air is reduced,
starts automatically and feeds air into the vessel so that pressure
is built-up. Equilibrium is established by equal volume of air and water;
thus in the cylindrical
vessel air and water is at the same pressure and supply through delivery
starts. As soon as the demand of water increases beyond the pumping
the lead pump, pressure falls beyond minimum pressure and the supplementary
starts automatically. As demand falls, the supplementary pump stops
the lead pump stops. The supply can be cut off by closing the isolating
provided on the delivery main from the pressure vessel.